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Who’re the Afghan refugees in France and on the planet?

The ultimate withdrawal, on the evening of August 30 to 31, of the American forces answerable for securing the Kabul airport put an finish to the evacuations of overseas nationals and Afghan civilians fleeing the Taliban regime. The French operations which ended Thursday made it potential to ship 2,600 Afghans to France. A decision endorsing the “Commitments” Taliban to permit the departure of those that want was adopted Monday by the United Nations Safety Council in New York.

In response to the concern of a brand new wave of migration, Emmanuel Macron estimated, Sunday on LCI and TF1, that the scenario wouldn’t be much like 2015, when the civil battle in Syria had created a migratory disaster pushing greater than 1,000,000 refugees to the European Union. The President notably recalled that“There have already been very robust actions” Afghan migrants over time. Even when no mass exodus is famous, the United Nations Group expects, “In probably the most pessimistic state of affairs”, to half 1,000,000 Afghan refugees in 2021, principally in neighboring nations.

Afghanistan has already been within the grip of political instability for a number of many years, and whereas Afghan refugees are quite a few, solely a minority are arriving in Europe and France.

  • Thousands and thousands of refugees because the 1980s

With practically 2.6 million refugees worldwide in 2020 (and greater than 238,000 asylum requests deposited within the yr), Afghans characterize the third most quite a few nationality underneath the safety of the United Nations Excessive Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), a UN program answerable for defending them and making certain the applying of the Geneva conference. The Afghan group represents 11% of all refugees on the planet, after Syrians (6.7 million worldwide) and Venezuelans (Four million).

The variety of Afghan refugees on the planet regularly elevated in the course of the 1980s, peaking at over 6.three million folks receiving asylum in 1990 and 1991, in the course of the civil battle following the withdrawal of the refugees. Soviet troops within the nation. It then fell because the mid-1990s to stay because the 2000s at a degree between two and three million.

  • Lower than 13% of Afghan refugees arrive in Europe

As usually occurs throughout migration crises, it’s primarily neighboring nations that welcome populations fleeing their nation for political causes. Thus, 55.4% of Afghan refugees had been in Pakistan in 2020 (or 1.Four million) and 30.1% in Iran (780,000).

All European nations host solely 12.8% of Afghans underneath UNHCR safety. For its half, the US acquired, in 2020, solely 0.1% of this whole (1,592 refugees and 796 pending functions).

  • Germany, the EU’s first host nation

With practically 148,000 Afghan refugees on its soil in 2020, Germany is by far the main host nation for the Afghan asylum group in Europe, a degree practically 5 occasions larger than that of France (31 546 Afghan refugees welcomed in 2020 based on UNHCR figures).

Germany can also be the nation with probably the most asylum functions in Europe, with 35,390 functions in 2020, adopted by Greece (19,785) then France (17,520). In France, as in Greece, the Afghans characterize the primary group of asylum seekers.

For François Gemenne, researcher on the College of Liège, and coordinator of the European analysis venture Magyc (governance of migration and asylum crises), “The rising migration disaster might resemble that of 2015, with the distinction that it might have an effect on fewer folks. Politically, Europe is simply as ill-prepared as in 2014-2015, if not worse, because the UK left the EU and the problem of immigration management was a cornerstone of Brexit ” .

For this migration specialist, the group of reception is important: “We should not let the Afghans throw themselves on the asylum routes, however put in place a resettlement system for humanitarian functions that permits Afghans wishing to flee the regime to take action via authorized and safe channels. Nations have already utilized, comparable to Canada or the UK specifically, which have introduced that they’re prepared to simply accept a sure quota of refugees. “

  • Increasingly Afghan refugees in France

In France, it’s the French Workplace for the Safety of Refugees and Stateless Individuals (Ofpra) which offers with the examination of asylum functions and the granting of refugee standing or beneficiaries of subsidiary safety (granted to individuals who can’t profit from refugee standing however who danger struggling severe hurt of their nation: loss of life penalty, torture, inhuman remedy, generalized violence ensuing from a scenario of armed battle, and so on.).

Ofpra had 41,174 Afghan nationals underneath its safety (refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary safety) as of June 30, 2021, and eight,000 functions are pending. It’s the first group in France, forward of the Syrians (35,327) and the Sri Lankans (33,675). The variety of requests from Afghans has elevated tenfold just lately, due to the migration disaster (616 first requests in 2014, 6,087 in 2016), they usually represent the primary group by way of the variety of safety requests filed and safety granted. .

For Gérard Sadik, nationwide supervisor at Cimade, an affiliation for solidarity with migrants, these figures might be defined by the coverage pursued by Ofpra, in Calais specifically, to persuade Afghans to hunt asylum in France, which they’d completed little till then, preferring to proceed their journey to the UK.

  • The overwhelming majority of males, younger and arriving alone

The Afghan refugee group in France could be very younger and really masculine, with an especially unbalanced male-to-female ratio: 12.5% ​​feminine and an general common age of 27.2 years. As defined in World Gérard Sadik, migration to Europe is finished primarily by highway and is the very fact “Younger folks, principally unqualified, who’ve labored based on the alternatives accessible to them within the nations crossed”. He additionally remembers that these younger males are “Notably fragile, due to the traumatic conditions encountered of their nation of origin or in migration, and due to a robust financial precariousness” and that they “Hardly match into the reception methods for asylum seekers and settle in camps for steadily evacuated migrants, in Ile-de-France for instance”.

  • The difficulty of household reunification

Household reunification or reunification procedures represent “A serious stake for this group, particularly within the interval to come back, continues Gérard Sadik. On the finish of 2020, solely 556 residence permits had been issued for that reason. The procedures are Kafkaesque and it’ll in all probability be not possible for candidates for household reunification to go to the French consulates within the occasion of a airtight closure of the borders by the Taliban. “

Article reserved for our subscribers Learn additionally The Afghans of France, a rising and fragmented group

Researcher François Gemenne lastly evokes the concern that asylum will now be reserved “To the most effective linked, the richest Afghans, who had been capable of shortly go away the nation whereas those that stay danger ending up in an open-air jail.” He hypothesizes that those that want to flee however who shouldn’t have the means instantly will not be thought of, within the months to come back, as candidates for asylum however as financial migrants, which reduces their possibilities of see their request accepted within the host nations.

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