A long-lost moon may have given Saturn its iconic rings

The planet’s rings may have come from an ancient missing moon, according to space scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of California, Berkeley.

Today, Saturn has 82 moons, according to NASA. The research team proposed that the ringed planet may have had another orbiting the planet for a few billion years.

But about 160 million years ago, this moon became unstable and got too close to Saturn in what researchers described as a “grazing encounter” that shattered the moon.

While the gas giant likely swallowed 99% of the moon, the rest hung in orbit, breaking into small chunks of ice that eventually formed the planet’s rings, the scientists suggested.

Previous research had estimated Saturn’s rings to be 100 million years old – much younger than the planet itself although their age is a hotly debated topic. This latest study provides a potential explanation for their later origin.

“A variety of explanations have been offered, but none are completely convincing. The cool thing is that the unexplained young age of the rings is naturally explained in our scenario,” said the study’s author. , Jack Wisdom, professor of planetary sciences at Massachusetts. Institute of Technology, in a press release.

The new research, published Thursday in the journal Science, is based on computer modeling using measurements made in 2017 at the very end of NASA’s Cassini mission, which spent 13 years exploring Saturn and its moons.

Saturn’s Unusual Tilt

The study also sheds light on two other puzzling features of Saturn.

Previously, astronomers suspected the planet’s 26.7-degree tilt stemmed from gravitational interactions with its neighbor Neptune, but according to the study, the lost moon theory may provide a better explanation. The two planets may have once been in sync, and the loss of a moon could have been enough to dislodge Saturn from Neptune’s pull and leave it at its current tilt.

“The tilt is too large to be the result of known formation processes in a protoplanetary disk or subsequent large collisions,” Wisdom said.

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Scientists believe the same event may have caused Saturn’s moon Titan – which is the second-largest moon in the solar system and larger than the planet Mercury – to embark on its curious orbit. The moon rapidly migrates outward from Saturn at about 11 centimeters (4.3 inches) per year, the study notes.

The researchers named the lost moon Chrysalis, because of how they think it transformed the planet.

“Just like a butterfly’s chrysalis, this satellite slept for a long time and suddenly became active, and the rings emerged,” Wisdom said.

He added that the research told “a pretty good story”, but would need to be tested and reviewed by other astronomers.


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